International Comet Quarterly

Some interesting meteorite falls of the last two centuries

Records in the past century indicate that roughly one impact of a meteorite fall per year is found to hit a human-built structure, often causing some minor damage; there are thus many more meteorites hitting human structures per year, with Halliday et al. (1985, *Nature* *318*, p. 317) estimating that roughly sixteen buildings per year in the world would receive some damage, and that a person would be expected to be struck about once every nine years on average -- a number suggesting (along with quite a large number of reported animal deaths due to meteorite falls over the millennia) that reports of human deaths (see list below) are indeed likely to be true in at least some historical cases. The most recent purported human death attributed to a meteorite fall, announced in the New York Times, occurred on 1929 Nov. 20, when one person in a carriage of a bridal party in Zvezvan, Yugoslavia, was reportedly killed (and another injured) after being hit by a 40-cm meteorite. It has been estimated that a one-ton meteorite mass (meaning multiple pieces landing from a single incoming meteoroid) hits the ground somewhere on earth every year, and a 10-ton meteorite mass lands about once every 15 years [M. Zolensky et al. 2006, in Meteorites and the Early Solar System II, ed. by D. S. Lauretta and H. Y. McSween, Jr. (University of Arizona Press), pp 869ff]. While no meteorite has been found, the famous Tunguska fireball air blast of 1908 June 30 over Siberia knocked several people off their feet, hurled one person several meters through the air, killed a herd of reindeer, and demolished the forest with trees blown down radially outward from the center of the blast for 2150 square km (Brown 1973; Steele 1995, 2000) -- and it can easily be surmised that a few nomadic people in the sparsely-populated area may have been killed. There has been some debate as to whether the parent body was cometary or asteroidal, but a cometary nature was widely thought for decades due to the lack of a crater and the presumption that a comet of the size needed for such a large explosion would be more likely to completely disintegrate (see F. L. Whipple 1962, Trans. IAU X1A, p. 215).

Below are more than a hundred selected meteorite falls (in scores of different countries/nations) that are notable for striking people, animals, or man-made structures; for large amounts of weight/mass and/or great number of meteorites recovered from single falls; or for notable scientific reasons. Note that a "fall" here means that the meteorites were collected soon after they actually fell through the earth's atmosphere (vs. those many meteorite finds that are found many years, and sometimes many centuries, after their falls to earth). For comparison (vs. meteorite falls), the largest meteorite find is the Hoba meteorite, which was found in 1920 on a farm in Namibia, weighing about 60 tonnes, having fallen tens of thousands of years ago and now measuring 2.7 x 2.7 x 0.9 m and composed of about 84% iron and 16% nickel. [Note: an older html version of this page can be accessed at this link]

DATE          LOCATION                REMARKS                          REFERENCES
1799 09 29    Saint-Ouen-en-         H5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [31]
               Champagne, Pays de     the feet of a day laborer
               la Loire, France       after a violent thunder clap
                                      at 3 pm; too hot to touch at
                                      first; weighed 9 lb 7 oz

1803 04 26    L'Aigle, Lower         L6 chondrite meteorite shower      [32]
                Normandy, France      of more than 3000 fragments
                                      Jean-Baptiste Biot's work on
                                      these meteorites pointed to
                                      an extraterrestrial origin
                                      for the stones and gave birth 
                                      to the science of meteoritics

1807 12 14    Weston, CT, U.S.A.     meteor visible half a minute,      [21]
                                      loud sounds heard, many stones
                                      found scattered over 6-10
                                      miles, weighing as much as
                                      200 lbs. total (largest
                                      meteorite weighed 35 lbs)

1825 01 16    Oriang, Malwate,       man killed, woman injured in       [14, 17,
               India                  meteorite fall [considered           25]
                                      "possible" by LaPaz (1958)]

1827 02 16    Mhow, India            man wounded "severely in the       [12, 17,
                                      arm" when hit by meteorite           25]

1836 11 11    Macau, Brazil          cattle killed when hit by          [12, 17,
                                      shower of meteorites                 25]
                                      [considered "possible" by
                                       LaPaz (1958)]

1844 12 01    Lo-shih Shan,          eleven stones fell; wall and side    [1]
                An-chi, China         wall and room of Li Wei-kung's 
                                      Temple damaged

1847 07 14    Hauptmannsdorf,        37-pound Braunau iron meteorite    [12, 17,
               Braunau, Bohemia       smashed into a room, covering        25]
                                      three children with ceiling
                                      debris but not hurting them

1850 10 17    Tang village, near     shiny black stone broke through      [1]
                T'ing-ch'eng, China   roof of a house

1860 05 01    New Concord, OH,       horse struck and killed by         [12, 17,
               USA                    meteorite                            25]

1863 08 08    Pillistfer, Latvia     5.4-kg stony meteorite               [25]
                                      penetrated tile roof and
                                      floor of building

1868 01 30    Pultusk, Poland        meteorite shower of more than        [12,
                                      100,000 fragments; bright fireball    27]

1874 06 30    Chin-kuei Shan,        huge stone fell from sky, crushed     [1]
               Ming-tung Li, China    half a cottage, killing a child

1879 01 31    Dun-le-Poelier, France  farmer reported killed by meteorite  [26]

1879 Nov./Dec.  Huang-hsiang, China  many black stones rained down,        [1]
                                      damaging many houses; sulfur smell

1882 02 03    Mocs, Romania          meteorite shower of thousands        [12, 
                                      of fragments; bright fireball         27]

1888 08 22    Sulaymaniyah, Iraq     meteorite struck a hill, creating    [105]
                                      an airburst and throwing up 
                                      fragments that struck two men and 
                                      damaged crops; one of the men was 
                                      killed and the other paralyzed

1890 05 02    Forest City, IA, USA   meteorite shower of some 2000        [12,
                                      fragments; one fragment fell into     27]
                                      a pile of hay (no fire); bright
                                      fireball seen

1893 09 02    Zabrodje, White        3-kg stony meteorite fell through    [25]
                 Russia               house roof

1906 11 04    Constantia, South      1-kg stony meteorite smashed         [25]
                 Africa               through roof and ceiling
                                      (2-pound piece recovered)

1907 09 05    Hsin-p-ai Wei,         meteorite caused a house to           [1]
               Weng-li, China         collapse, killing a family

1908 06 30    Tunguska, Siberia      apparent airblast (no recovered     [15,
                                      meteorites) of an object entering    26,
                                      earth's atmosphere; leveled           27]
                                      hundreds of square miles of forest,
                                      killing hundreds of reindeer;
                                      unverified two people killed

1911 06 16    Kilbourn, WI, USA      772-gm stony meteorite passed        [25]
                                      through roof and floorboard of
                                      barn, penetrated 2.5 inches into
                                      clay floor

1911 06 28    Nakhla, Egypt          dog struck and killed by           [12, 17,
                                      meteorite (part of meteorite      25, 36]
                                      shower); presumed Martian origin

1912 07 19    Holbrook, AZ, USA      meteorite shower of more than      [12, 13]
                                      14000 fragments; meteorite
                                      fell a few meters from a person;
                                      largest fragment 9 pounds

1915 04 25    Ta-yang, east of       meteorite tore off a woman's         [1]
               Mai-po, China          arm; several meteorites, ranging
                                      from about 2 to about 3.5 kg

1916 01 18    Baxter, MO, USA        611-gm stony meteorite               [25]
                                      penetrated roof of house

1921 12 31    Beyrout, Syria         1.1-kg stony meteorite fell          [25]
                                      through hut roof

1924 07 06    Johnstown, CO, USA     meteorites fell within a few feet    [13]
                                      of two men; 50-pound stone went
                                      5 feet into wet soil

1927 04 28    Aba-mura, Inashiki-    young girl suffered two head      [16, 25]
               gun, Ibaragi-ken,      injuries when struck by a
               Japan                  stony meteorite

1929 11 20    Zvezvan, Yugoslavia    man riding in a carriage in         [28]
                                      a wedding party was killed when
                                      hit by a 40-cm meteorite; a
                                      woman sitting opposite him
                                      was badly injured; "meteor ...
                                      was glowing hot"

1931 07 09    Ardon, Castilla        5.49-g L6 ordinary chondrite       [33]
               y Leon, Spain          fell in a street in front of 
                                      an 11-yr-old girl after she 
                                      saw a bolide in the sky

1932 08 10    Archie, MO, USA        meteorite fell less than 1 m      [12, 13]
                                      from person

1936 04 02    Yurtuk, Ukraine        2-kg stony meteorite smashed         [25]
                                      hole in roof of house

1938 03 31    Kasamatsu, Japan       721-gm stony meteorite               [25]
                                      penetrated house roof, landed
                                      on floor

1938 06 16    Pantar, Philippines    numerous buildings hit by          [12, 25]
                                      thousands of meteorites "as
                                      big as corn and rice grains"

1938 06 24    Chicora, PA, USA       cow's hide injured, presumably     [17, 25,
                                      by a fragment belonging to the        27]
                                      meteorite shower in that area
                                      on that day; bright fireball seen

1938 09 29    Benld, IL, USA         building and car hit by stony      [12, 13,
                                      meteorites; the car was hit by        25]
                                      a 4-pound fragment after it
                                      crashed through the roof of a
                                      garage, then through roof, seat,
                                      and floorboards of car

1947 02 12    Sikhote-Alin, south-   largest meteorite shower on        [2, 27]
               eastern Siberia        record; estimated 100 tons of         
                                      total debris fell, the largest
                                      weighing 1745 kg; some 9000
                                      fragments weighing about 28
                                      tons recovered; largest crater
                                      28 m wide; bright fireball

1948 02 18    Norton County, KS;     very large shower of Ca-poor       [34]
               Furnas Cty, NE, USA    aubrite meteorites after a
                                      brilliant fireball and loud;
                                      main mass weighs about 1070
                                      kg (2360 lbs), on display at
                                      University of New Mexico in

1949 09 21    Beddgelert, N. Wales   794-gm stony meteorite broke         [25]
                                      through roof and fell into 
                                      hotel room

1950 09 20    Murray, KY, USA        five buildings hit by meteorites;    [12,
                                      bright fireball seen                  27]

1950 12 10    St. Louis, MO, USA     car hit by meteorite                 [12]

1952 06 09    Abee, AB, Canada       107-kg (236-lb) enstatite          [69]
                                      is the only example known
                                      of an EH4 impact-melt 
                                      breccia meteorite; fell at
                                      11:05 pm local time and
                                      recovered from a 6-ft-deep 
                                      (1.8-m-deep) crater in a
                                      wheat field

1954 11 30    Sylacauga, AL, USA     woman in home hit by meteorite      [3, 12,
                                      after breaking through roof          25]

1956 02 29    McMurchie ranch        H5 stony meteorite fell during     [68]
               near Centerville,      the night, striking a corn
               South Dakota, USA      planter in a shed after
                                      penetrating the aluminum roof;
                                      main mass and two fragments
                                      weighed 45.64 g

1959 04 07    Pribram,               four enstatite chondrite           [104]
               Czechoslovakia         meteorites totalling nearly
                                      6 kg were found in the first
                                      multiple-station photographic
                                      triangulation (Ondrejov
                                      Observatory) for a subsequent
                                      search, one of which was found
                                      only 12 m from the prediction;
                                      the meteor was first detected
                                      at altitude 98 km, peak
                                      brightness at mag -19 at 55 
                                      km, and last light visible at
                                      altitude 13.3 km 

1962 04 26    Kiel, West Germany     olivine-hypersthene chondrite      [60]
                                      fell early afternoon, hitting
                                      roof of a house and making a
                                      hole about 10 x 10 cm in size
                                      and making a noise; stone
                                      found in attic (weight 737.6 
                                      g); no known observations 
                                      of the fireball or acoustic 

1964 04 11    Muzzaffarpur,          nickel-rich ataxite iron           [55]
               Bahrampur and Man      meteorite fell at 17h local
               Bishunpur districts,   time as a luminous white ball
               Bihar, India           descending quickly with 
                                      thick, dark, black smoke,
                                      with three nearly simultaneous
                                      thunderous sounds heard; with
                                      a hissing sound, a fragment 
                                      fell on cultivated land, 
                                      making a pit 13.5 cm deep and 
                                      9 cm in diameter; recovered
                                      1 min of its fall and was said
                                      to be hot enough to burn the 
                                      fingers (weighs 1.092 kg);
                                      another 153-g stone fell 3 km
                                      from the larger stone (and
                                      further along the trajectory)

1965 12 24    Barwell, England       two buildings and a car hit by       [12]
                                      by meteorites

1966 06 27    Saint-Severin,         LL6 chondrite meteorite fell       [101]
               Charente,              with detonations and whistling 
               Nouvelle-Aquitaine,    sounds; a number of meteorites
               France                 fell on the towns of Severin 
                                      and Allemans, the largest
                                      weighing 113 kg; eight total
                                      recovered stones weigh 271 kg

1967 09 02    Wiluna township,       H4 Olivine-bronzite chondrite      [102]
               Western Australia      fell at 10:46 p.m. local time;
                                      490 individual fusion-crusted 
                                      stones and a large number of 
                                      fragments recovered (total
                                      weight more than 150 kg)

1968 11 14    Juromenha,             iron, nickel-rich ataxite          [103]
               Alandroal, Portugal    meteorite fell in late
                                      afternoon as a bolide; a
                                      local man located 30 m from
                                      the meteorite hole (0.8 m
                                      deep) heard an enormous noise 
                                      accompanied by a great glow 
                                      similar to that of daylight;
                                      25.2-kg meteorite at bottom
                                      of hole

1969 02 08    Pueblito de Allende,    largest carbonaceous chondrite     [35]
               Chihuahua, Mexico      meteorite ever found; over two
                                      tonnes (hundreds) of meteorites 
                                      collected; brilliant fireball 
                                      seen at 1:05 am local time, 
                                      lit up the sky and ground for 
                                      hundreds of miles; original 
                                      meteoroid estimated to be the 
                                      size of an automobile moving 
                                      towards the earth at 10 mi/sec 
                                      (16 km/sec); strewnfield 
                                      measures approx. 8 x 50 km; 

1969 08 07    Andreevka,             Olivine-hypersthene chondrite      [88]
               Slaviansky, Donetz     fell about 7 p.m. local time;
               Ukraine (then USSR)    0.6-kg meteorite made a hole 
                                      in a house's slate roof and
                                      fell on the floor of the 
                                      garret, broken; the largest 
                                      fragment weighing 150 g is in
                                      the Donets Museum of Regional 

1969 09 28    near Murchison,        CM carbonaceous chondrites         [75]
               Victoria,              fell at ca. 10:58 a.m. local
               Australia              time as a bright fireball 
                                      was observed to separate 
                                      into three fragments before 
                                      disappearing, leaving a 
                                      cloud of smoke; about 30 sec
                                      later, a tremor was heard;
                                      many fragments were found 
                                      scattered over an area 
                                      larger than 13 sq. km, with 
                                      individual masses up to 7 kg
                                      (15 lb); one, weighing 680 g
                                      (1.5 lb), broke through a 
                                      roof and fell in hay; the 
                                      total collected mass of the 
                                      meteorite exceeds 100 kg 
                                      (220 lb); more than 15 amino 
                                      acids have been identified 
                                      during multiple studies of 
                                      this meteorite that is rich 
                                      in organic compounds; one 
                                      of the most studied of all 

1970 01 03    Lost City, OK, USA     bronzite chondrite meteorite       [74]
                                      seen as a fireball at 20:14 
                                      local time, comparable in 
                                      brightness to full moon,
                                      widely observed with sonic 
                                      booms and thunder heard over 
                                      about 1000 sq km in NE 
                                      Oklahoma; 9-sec-duration 
                                      meteor photographed from four 
                                      SAO Prairie Network stations 
                                      in OK and KS; initial altitude
                                      of visible meteor 86 km, end 
                                      altitude 19 km; four fragments 
                                      totalling 17 kg were found via 
                                      a dedicated search; Skip
                                      Schwartz recovered a 9.83-kg 
                                      meteorite on the surface of a 
                                      dirt road about 700 m from the 
                                      predicted impact location; an
                                      early meteorite find due to
                                      photographic triangulation of
                                      its fireball
1971 04 08    Wethersfield, CT,      12-ounce meteorite entered house    [4, 12]
               USA                    through roof, lodged in living-
                                      room ceiling; ordinary chondrite;
                                      less than two miles away, another
                                      house was hit 11.5 yr later

1972 10 15    Valera, Trujillo,      L5 ordinary chondrite fell         [89]
               Venezuela              as a bright light 
                                      accompanied by a loud noise;
                                      the next morning, two mean
                                      discovered that a cow had 
                                      apparently been killed by a 
                                      falling stone; the stone had 
                                      broken into three pieces 
                                      weighing 38, 8, and 4 kg.

1974 08 18    village of Naragh,     H6 Olivine-bronzite chondrite      [70]
               85 km SW of Teheran,   fell at 18:30 local time;
               Iran                   2.7-kg meteorite fell through 
                                      the roof of a school, making a 
                                      hole about 90 cm in diameter; 
                                      there were no casualties

1976 03 08    Jilin City, Jilin,     largest stony-meteorite shower      [1, 12]
               China                  in recent times; more than          
                                      100 fragments, the largest
                                      being 1770 kg in weight and
                                      making an impact crater 6 m deep;
                                      H5 chondrite

1977 01 31    Louisville, KY, USA    three buildings and a car hit by   [12, 24]

1977 02 05    13 km NE of            L4-5 Olivine-hypersthene           [90]
               Innisfree, AB,         chondrite seen as a fireball;
               Canada                 2.07-kg meteorite found on
                                      snow 12 days later at the site 
                                      predicted from calculations 
                                      based on fireball photographs;
                                      total weight of six stones and
                                      fragments 3.79 kg found within
                                      a 400 m x 500 m area; an early 
                                      meteorite find using 
                                      photographic-film cameras to 
                                      triangulate fall location 
                                      (center of strewnfield within
                                      300 m of prediction)

1982 11 08    Wethersfield, CT,      meteorite entered house through     [4, 12,
               USA                    roof; second house hit in same        26]
                                      town in 11.5 years; L6 chondrite

1984 09 30    Binningup, WA,         meteorite fell 4-5 m from two        [12]
               Australia              sunbathers on soft beach sand

1984 12 10    Claxton, GA, USA       mailbox hit by meteorite             [12]

1986 07 29    Kokubunji, Japan       several buildings hit by meteorites  [12]

1986 09 11    Undulung, Yakutiya,    L4 ordinary chondrite seen         [91]
               Russia                 falling by a helicopter crew
                                      while in flight, as it landed
                                      on a sand bar in the Undulung 
                                      River; the crew immediately 
                                      landed on the bar and found 
                                      a small, warm black stone, 
                                      broken into two parts of 
                                      97.7 and 15.7 g.

1991 03 26    Tahara, Tahara-machi,  H5 ordinary chondrite fell ca.     [92]
               Japan                  11-12 am onto the deck of a
                                      ship that was loading Toyota
                                      cars; the crew found meteorite 
                                      fragments spread out from two 
                                      impact dents in the steel
                                      deck, the larger dent measuring 
                                      20 x 6.5 cm and 3 cm depth;
                                      from the size of the impact 
                                      dent, the total weight was
                                      estimated to more than 5 kg, 
                                      but most of it was thrown into 
                                      the ocean by the cleaning crew;
                                      only about 1 kg are preserved;
                                      no sound was heard
                                      accompanying the fall

1991 08 31    Noblesville, IN, USA   meteorite fell 3.5 m from two        [5]
                                      children outside; ordinary
                                      stony chondrite

1992 08 14    Mbale, Uganda          meteorite shower; boy hit on         [6]
                                      head by 3.6-g fragment after
                                      it hit tree first                  

1992 10 09    Peekskill, NY, USA     car hit by meteorite, which          [7]
                                      passed through steel trunk
                                      and impacted ground underneath;
                                      fireball widely visible and
                                      imaged along east coast

1992 12 10    Mihonoseki, Honshu,    6.5-kg L6 ordinary chondrite         [10]
               Japan                  meteorite crashed through house
                                      to ground

1994 06 14    St-Robert, QC,         meteorite shower caused sonic        [8]
               Canada                 boom in Montreal; scattered
                                      strewnfield in rural area;
                                      more than 25 kg recovered;
                                      H5 chondrite

1994 06 21    near Getafe, Spain     12-cm-wide, 1.4-kg meteorite         [11]
                                      broke windshield and bent
                                      steering wheel of moving car,
                                      breaking finger of driver;
                                      more than 50 kg of meteorites
                                      found within 200 m of accident

1995 02 18    Neagari, Nomi-gun,     L6 ordinary chondrite fell at      [93]
               Ishikawa-ken, Japan    23:55 local time as a fireball
                                      seen by numerous witnesses;
                                      the next morning, a man found 
                                      a hole in the trunk of his car, 
                                      with meteorite fragments on and
                                      inside the trunk (total 
                                      recovered mass 420 g); a
                                      neighbor said that he had heard 
                                      a large noise during the night.

1995 09 07    Dong Ujimqin Qi,       Mesosiderite meteorite fell        [94]
               Nei Mongol Zizhiqu,    at 13:35 local time on a 
                China                 cloudless day; people heard 
                                      a tremendous sound and 
                                      observed black smoke;
                                      Meteorites weighing 88.2 kg
                                      (= 194 lbs), 38 kg, and 2.6 
                                      kg were recovered in a meadow
                                      (total mass 128.8 kg = 284 lbs)

1996 10 21    Turtle Lake,           L5 ordinary chondrite hit the      [37]
              Clayton, Barron         windshield of a car parked
              County, WI, USA         outside a home, making a 
                                      grapefruit-sized fracture 
                                      in the windshield; two 
                                      fragments found weighing 89.3 g

1997 02 15    Juancheng, Shandong    H5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [95]
               Province, China        23:23 Beijing time as a
                                      shower of small stones (> 1000 
                                      fragments) fell near the 
                                      Yellow River after a brilliant 
                                      fireball with smoke and sparks 
                                      terminated in a loud,
                                      resonating explosion; recovery
                                      measured ca. 10.5 +/- 4.3 km;
                                      the largest recovered piece 
                                      weighed 2.7 kg, and the total 
                                      mass is > 100 kg; one fragment 
                                      was reported to have penetrated 
                                      a roof and landed in a pot on 
                                      a stove.

1998 06 13   Portales Valley,       H6 ordinary chondrite fell ca.     [96]
               Roosevelt County,     7:30 am local time, with
               New Mexico, USA       detonations were heard and 
                                     smoky trails seen in the sky;
                                     a shower of meteorites, with
                                     53 individual stones recovered
                                     (total mass 71.4 kg); the 
                                     largest pieces weighed 16.5 kg
                                     and 17.0 kg, and at least nine 
                                     others over 1 kg; a 530-g 
                                     fragment went through the roof 
                                     of a barn and embedded itself 
                                     in a wall

1998 06 20    Kunya-Urgench,         H5 ordinary chondrite fell at    [38, 97]
               Dashkhowus Velayat,    17:25 local time, with a 
               Turkmenistan           large bolide observed by 
                                      people in several villages, 
                                      and a loud whistling 
                                      followed by a crashing noise 
                                      was heard; a large mass 
                                      impacted 30-50 m from several 
                                      farmers in a cotton field, 
                                      creating a deep crater 6 m 
                                      wide and 4 m deep; a single 
                                      stone weighing ca. 900 kg 
                                      was recovered from the 
                                      crater, and 1000-1100 kg 
                                      (2200-2400 lbs) was 
                                      recovered in total; pre-entry 
                                      mass esimated at 1.5-2.5 tons

1999 09 26    Tsukushigaoka,         CK4 Carbonaceous chondrite         [98]
               Kita-ku, Kobe,         fell at 20:21 local time
               Japan                  as a fireball widely observed,
                                      and shortly afterwards a 
                                      detonation was heard; one 
                                      stone was recovered that
                                      broke into 20 pieces after 
                                      penetrating the roof of a
                                      house, much of the material 
                                      landing on a bed (total mass 
                                      136 g, with the largest 
                                      pieces weighing 64.9, 32.9, 
                                      and 13.6 g.

2002 02 20    San Michele,           L6 ordinary chondrite fell at      [39]
               Pesaro Urbino,         6:45 am local time, hitting
               Marche, Italy          house roof and making a sound,
                                      making a hole in the roof;
                                      237-g meteorite found in loft

2002 07 21    Thuathe, Lesotho       H4/5 ordinary chondrite fell in    [99]
                                      early afternoon, exploding
                                      with an extraordinarily loud,
                                      15-s-long noise that was heard
                                      over a large (100-km radius)
                                      area; sparkling objects and dust
                                      trails seen as the fireball fell;
                                      strewnfield 7.4 x 1.9 km; many
                                      villagers reported falls of 
                                      stones close to themselves and 
                                      onto their homes; estimated
                                      total mass of recovered material 
                                      is ca. 30 kg, including 418 
                                      stones in the range 2 g-2.4 kg 
                                      for a total of 24.673 kg (54 lb)

2003 03 26    suburban Chicago,      meteorite shower; buildings          [9]
               IL, USA                hit in Park Forest, IL;
                                      ordinary chondrites

2003 09 23    New Orleans, LA, USA   H5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [100]
                                      as an observed fireball at
                                      16:05 local time; a meteorite 
                                      crashed through a two-story 
                                      home, as neighbors said that 
                                      they heard a "terrific noise";
                                      the main mass of the 
                                      meteorite was found in the
                                      crawl space under the house;
                                      powdery meteorite debris and 
                                      fragments were found along 
                                      the penetration path 
                                      throughout the house; a total 
                                      mass of 19.256 kg was 
                                      recovered from the house, the 
                                      three largest fragments
                                      weighing 2966, 1292, and 1001 
                                      g (additional material
                                      weighing ca. 100 g was also 
                                      recovered in the surrounding 

2003 09 27    Mayurbhanj,            bright fireball(s) lit up sky just   [18]
               Orissa, India          after sunset; widely observed
                                      meteorite shower yielding 
                                      numerous highly magnetic meteorites

2004 06 12    Ellerslie, suburban    1.3-kg (2.8-lb) 7-cm x 13-cm         [19]
               Auckland, N.Z.         meteorite broke through roof of
                                      house and bounced off sofa

2004 11 08    Orlando, FL, USA       Achondrite meteorite hit the       [40]
                                      side of a house after bouncing
                                      off the top of a car; a stone
                                      weighing about 180 g was found

2006 07 14    Moss, Ostfold,         Carbonaceous chondrite fell        [41]
               Norway                 as a bright fireball with a
                                      loud explosing and rumbling
                                      sound at 10:20 am local time;
                                      five stones recovered, incl. 
                                      one weighing about 1500 g
                                      that hit a fence and shattered,
                                      one weighiing about 800 g that
                                      hit concrete in an industrial
                                      area and shattered, and one
                                      weighing 676 g that penetrated
                                      the roof of a building

2007 02 21    Mahadevpur, near       H4/5 ordinary chondrite seen       [42]
               Namsai Town,           falling by many people; at
               Arunachal              least four large fragments
               Pradesh, India         were found -- the largest about
                                      60 kg; a 3.4-kg piece fell
                                      through the roof of a house and
                                      into the living room

2007 07 06    Santiago de Cali,      H/L4 ordinary chondrite fell as    [43]
               Columbia               a bright bolid widely seen
                                      across Colombia; several 
                                      fragmentations seen as it was
                                      breaking up in the atmosphere,
                                      causing audible detonations
                                      that shattered windows in the
                                      town of Restrepo; ten stones
                                      found in southern part of Cali,
                                      seven of which had penetrated
                                      roofs of houses.

2007 09 15    Carancas, Chucuito,   H4-5 ordinary chondrite fell     [22, 44]
               Puno, Peru             about 16:45 local time as
                                      a large fireball, making a
                                      crater about 11-14 m in 
                                      diameter; local residents and
                                      many others recovered
                                      numerous pieces of the impactor 
                                      from the sides of the crater
                                      and the surrounding area.]

2007 09 22    San Juan de            L5 ordinary chondrite hit the      [45]
               Ocotan,                side of a house with a 
               Jalisco, Mexico        crashing sound at 3 am;
                                      resident went out to find a
                                      1365-g smooth, fusion-crusted
                                      stone about 12 x 10 cm in size
                                      that was warm to the touch; it
                                      had passed through a blue
                                      tarpaulin and thick plastic

2008 01 10    Sokoto, Nigeria        Iron meteorite fell as an          [46]
                                      observed fireball around 10
                                      am local time, accompanied by
                                      a loud explosion; it destroyed 
                                      the roof of the house in Mana
                                      Village, with a stone weighing
                                      about 30 kg found 2 m deep in
                                      the ground

2008 04 12    Xinglongquan,          L3 ordinary chondrite fell at      [47]
               Hebei, China           about 4 pm, making a loud
                                      explosion at a house, inside of
                                      which smelled something like
                                      gunpowder; two main stones and
                                      some other pieces were scattered 
                                      on the floor, with a hole on
                                      the roof; largest meteorites
                                      weighed about 900 and 700 g

2008 10 06    Nubian desert,         47 meteorites weighing 3.95 kg    [23, 48]
               northern Sudan         were found in Dec. 2008 via a
              (Almahata Sitta)        systematic search along the
                                      suspected debris path for the
                                      small minor planet 2008 TC3,
                                      discovered 20 hours prior to 
                                      impact by R. A. Kowalski with the 
                                      1.5-m telescope at Mt. Lemmon in 
                                      Arizona, when it was about 370000 
                                      miles from the earth; a bright
                                      fireball was seen by airline
                                      pilots and orbiting satellites
                                      when the object entered the
                                      earth's atmosphere; the largest
                                      recovered meteorite weights 1.5 g
                                      (classified as a polymict ureilite,
                                      an achondrite)

2008 11 20    Buzzard Coulee,        H4 ordinary chondrite fell at      [49]
               Wilton Rural           17:26 local time as a bright
               Municipality,          fireball seen across AB, SK,
               SK, Canada             and MB during late twilight;
                                      abundant sonic phenomena were
                                      reported (anomalous sounds,
                                      explosion booms, sonic booms,
                                      whirring sounds) and widely
                                      recorded by Comprehensive Test 
                                      Ban Treaty infrasound stations,
                                      indicating an original
                                      meteoroid mass of about 10
                                      tons; observations led to a 
                                      constrained search area in 
                                      which more than 100 individual 
                                      fragments were recovered in 
                                      the following two weeks

2009 03 01    Cartersville,          L5 ordinary chondrite fell         [50]
               Georgia, USA           through a roof and ceiling
                                      and onto the floor of a 
                                      bedroom; sonic boom heard;
                                      295-g meteorite is 6 cm long

2009 05 28    Karimati, Uttar        L5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [51]
               Pradesh, India         around noon with a roaring
                                      sound; a blackish stone fell
                                      near a wall of a house, 1.5 m
                                      away from a resident, making
                                      an oval pit in the ground
                                      18 x 15 cm

2009 09 26    Grimsby, ON, Canada    H5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [52]
                                      21:03 local time as a
                                      brilliant fireball showing
                                      three major bursts over SW
                                      Ontario; imaging allowed
                                      identification of a search 
                                      area; one 46-g individual
                                      meteorite hit a parked
                                      vehicle; thirteen fragments 
                                      found, totaling 215 g.

2010 01 18    Lorton, VA, USA        L6 ordinary chondrite fell at      [53]
                                      5:45 pm local time as a fireball
                                      near dusk, with some reports of
                                      hearing a large detonation;
                                      one 329.7-g stone of size
                                      approx. 8 x 5 x 5 cm fell
                                      through the roof and ceiling of 
                                      a physicians office building; 
                                      those inside the building 
                                      described hearing a sound akin 
                                      to bookshelves crashing to the 

2010 04 14    Mifflin, Iowa          L5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [54]
               County, WI, USA        10:07 pm local time as a
                                      bright fireball was seen by 
                                      numerous observers in parts of
                                      WI, IA, and IL; heard locally
                                      as large explosions; a 7.4-g
                                      stone hit the metal roof of a 
                                      shed; more than 70 stones and
                                      fragments (more than 3.5 kg)
                                      recovered in the area within 
                                      a few weeks after the fall; 
                                      largest stone 332 g

2011 07 13    Draveil,               H5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [56]
               Ile-del-France,        12:10 local time, hitting and
               France                 making holes and dents in roofs;
                                      5.2-kg stone found in a garden;
                                      one stone reported to have 
                                      crashed through the windshield 
                                      of a car in Draveil.

2011 07 16    Thika, Kiambu          L6 ordinary chondrite fell at      [57]
               County, Kenya          around 10 am as a bright
                                      fireball with multiple loud
                                      explosions and loud screaming 
                                      noises, with ground shaking;
                                      one piece about 2.5 kg in 
                                      weight landed within 1 m of a 
                                      woman tilling her field in 
                                      the village of Kihum Wiri;
                                      two meteorites smashed through 
                                      greenhouses in Mwana Wikio and 
                                      one through a house in nearby 
                                      Muguga village; the largest
                                      meteorite weighed 3.575 kg;
                                      total known mass 14.2 kg,
                                      totaling 14 meteorites

2012 02 11    Xining, QingHai,       L5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [58]
               China                  about 1:30-2:00 pm with a
                                      loud noise; ten stones found
                                      by villagers, with the total
                                      weight of the fall being more 
                                      than 100 kg (220 lbs); the
                                      largest two stones are 17.3 
                                      and 12.5 kg.

2012 03 09    Oslo, Norway           H3-6 ordinary chondrite fell       [59]
                                      with large sound; a 550-g
                                      meteorite fell through a roof
                                      roof and into a cabin and
                                      split into two pieces; many
                                      other stones were found, with
                                      a 2.8-kg meteorite found in a

2013 02 15    Chelyabinsk,           extremely bright fireball       [20, 61]
               south-central Russia   (apparent brightness rivalling
                                      that of the apparent brightness
                                      of the sun) entered atmosphere
                                      over Alaska and moving westward
                                      toward Chelyabinsk, near its
                                      termination point shortly before
                                      sunrise, creating a huge airblast
                                      shock that damaged thousands of
                                      buildings in Chelyabinsk (mostly 
                                      broken glass) and injuring more
                                      than 1000 people; LL5 ordinary 
                                      chondrite; thousands of stones 
                                      fell as a shower around villages 
                                      about 40 km S of Chelyabinsk; 
                                      the largest stones reached the 
                                      frozen soil 0.7-m deep; the
                                      total recovered mass found by
                                      local people is certainly >
                                      100 kg and perhaps > 500 kg.                                      

2013 04 19    Wolcott, CT, USA       L5 ordinary chondrite fell         [62]
                                      shortly after 10 pm, when
                                      a loud boom was heard 
                                      across southern Connecticut; 
                                      a man heard a loud noise 
                                      coming from his attic and
                                      saw holes forming in his 
                                      dining room ceiling; he 
                                      found a hole in the roof,
                                      a damaged copper pipe, and
                                      a meteorite split into two
                                      pieces (597 and 221 g).

2013 12 09    Parauapebas,           H4-5 ordinary chondrite fell at    [63]
               Para, Brazil           about 7 pm local time with a
                                      bolide seen; a stone hit the 
                                      roof of a house with a loud 
                                      noise heard by the resident,
                                      who was hit by debris from the
                                      meteorite impacting the roof;
                                      others in the area heard loud
                                      thunder and a noise when the 
                                      stone penetrated the wooden 
                                      beam of their house, embedding 
                                      itself in the ground (the
                                      collected stone was still 
                                      warm when immediately 

2014 03 09    Jinju,                 H5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [64]
               Gyeongsangnam-do,      20:04 local time, observed as
               South Korea            a fireball in many places in 
                                      Korea and recorded by numerous 
                                      car-dashboard cameras; many
                                      people heard a sonic boom;
                                      a 9-kg meteorite was found by
                                      a farmer after it made a hole
                                      in his plastic greenhouse;
                                      total mass found was 34 kg

2015 06 27    Famenin,               H/L3 ordinary chondrite fell       [65]
               Hamadan, Iran          around 8:30 am local time;
                                      one resident heard the sound
                                      of an impacting object onto 
                                      the roof of his house, and he
                                      found roof damage and
                                      fragments of a stone spread 
                                      on the roof

2015 07 30    Moshampa, Zanjan,      LL5 ordinary chondrite fell        [66]
               Iran                   ca. 20:10-20:15 local time
                                      as a very bright fireball 
                                      in the evening sky, with
                                      thousands of reported sightings
                                      and reports of very loud
                                      sonic booms; a farmer heard 
                                      four loud booms and saw a 
                                      zig-zag shaped cloud in the 
                                      sky, and heard the sound of an 
                                      object falling into the wet 
                                      soil about 5-10 m away from 
                                      him; worried it might be 
                                      unexploded military ordnance, 
                                      he later heard other fireball
                                      reports and realized that the
                                      army and police were looking 
                                      for the object; he later 
                                      returned and found a 1554-g 
                                      stone buried about 20 cm deep 
                                      in a hole

2015 09 02    Saricicek,             HED achondrite (Howardite)         [67]
               Bingol, Turkey         fell as a bright bolide seen
                                      and heard in Bingol province;
                                      shortly after the fireball,
                                      small meteorites were heard 
                                      raining down on houses in the 
                                      village of Saricicek; locals
                                      found pea-sized meteorites on 
                                      the street and in yards;
                                      over 340 meteorites found

2017 02 16    San Pedro de           L6 ordinary chondrite fell at      [71]
               Uraba,                 5:30 pm local time as a large
               Antioquia, Colombia    fireball with sonic booms in 
                                      northern Colombia; a meteorite 
                                      of weight 3.768 kg impacted 
                                      near a person on the edge of 
                                      a soccer field 

2018 01 16    Hamburg, MI, USA       H4 ordinary chondrite fell at      [72]
                                      ca. 20:10 local time as a 
                                      fireball observed and reported 
                                      by hundreds of people from 
                                      seven states, and registered 
                                      as a 2.0-magnitude earthquake;
                                      some 20 meteorites were found
                                      via searches based on imaging

2018 06 01    Mangui, Yunnan,        L6 ordinary chondrite fell at      [73]
               China                  ca. 9 pm with a fireball seen;
                                      hundreds of pieces found;
                                      one meteorite broke through a
                                      farmer's silt-roofed house;
                                      largest meteorite weighs 1.28 kg

2018 06 02    Central Kalahari      impact of remains of asteroidal      [29]
                Game Reserve,        object designated 2018 LA; second 
                Botswana             asteroidal object discovered beyond 
                                     earth's atmosphere and known to 
                                     produce meteorites over land (near
                                     a water hole called Motopi Pan;
                                     23 meteorites recovered 21 days
                                     after impact (i.e., June 23), 
                                     following a search based on an
                                     observed fireball in the sky -- the 
                                     first meteorite found having a
                                     weight of 17.2 g; estimated size of
                                     rock prior to encounter with the
                                     earth was about 156 cm

2018 09 26    Komaki, Chubu,         L6 ordinary chondrite fell at      [76]
               Japan                  ca. 22:30 local time with a
                                      detonating sound heard at a 
                                      private house in Komatsuji 
                                      where several fragments were
                                      found on the roof and in the
                                      garden; next door, a 550-g
                                      stone penetrated the 
                                      roof of the carport, hit the 
                                      roof of the car, and came to
                                      to rest in front of the 
                                      entrance door.

2019 02 01    Vinales,               L6 ordinary chondrite fell at      [77]
               Pinar del Rio,         1:17 pm local time with a
               Cuba                   bright bolide and a long smoke
                                      trail; residents heard sonic
                                      booms, explosions and then 
                                      ground rumbling lasting 15-20 s;
                                      hundreds of pieces (totalling
                                      ca/ 50-100 kg) were found
                                      with masses in the range 2-1100
                                      kg, one breaking through an 
                                      asphalt road, and many were 
                                      recovered from rooftops

2019 04 23    Aguas Zarcas,          Carbonaceous chondrite fall        [78]
               Alajuela,              at 21:07 local time via
               Costa Rica             observed fireball; one piece
                                      weighing 1.152 kg crashed
                                      through a house; a 280-g
                                      piece hit a dog house; hundreds
                                      of pieces recovered with a 
                                      total mass of ca. 27 kg.

2020 01 09    Zhob, Baluchistan,     H3-4 ordinary chondrite fell at    [79]
               Pakistan               ca. 6:30 pm local time via a
                                      bright fireball followed by 
                                      sonic booms; shortly
                                      thereafter, a stone fell 
                                      through a house in a local 
                                      village of the Mando Khel tribal 
                                      area; four fusion-crusted stones 
                                      found weighing 6.309, about 5.5, 
                                      4.924, and 2.231 kg.

2020 04 24    Gatuto, Kenya          L6 ordinary chondrite fell at      [80]
                                      about 8:27 pm via a bright 
                                      trail in the sky, followed
                                      about 5 minutes later by three
                                      heard detonations and then
                                      another longer sound ending 
                                      with a bang; one witness
                                      saw an object impact his
                                      maize garden 15 m away just
                                      moments after hearing 
                                      detonations, creating a hole
                                      1 m deep with a 6.14-kg
                                      fusion-crusted stone; a woman
                                      in a nearby village heard a
                                      noise on the corrugated metal
                                      roof, found a hole in the roof 
                                      and shattered rock on the 
                                      concrete floor; elsewhere, a 
                                      2.29-kg stone shredded bark 
                                      on a tree before falling next
                                      to the tree; another stone > 8 
                                      kg was taken from its impact 
                                      hole behind a man's home 

2020 07 02    Narashino,             H5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [81]
               Kanto, Japan           2:32 am local time with a
                                      bright fireball observed with
                                      a detonating sound heard at an
                                      apartment in Narashino city, 
                                      where a 63-g fragment was 
                                      found in the corridor and a
                                      70-g piece was found in the
                                      garden and 22 g on a terrace
                                      of the same building; in 
                                      Funabashi city, a roofing tile 
                                      of an apartment was broken and 
                                      ten fragments totalling 184 g 
                                      were found on the ground with 
                                      roofing tile fragments

2020 08 01    Kolang, Sumatera       Carbonaceous chondrite fell at     [82]
               Utara, Indonesia       ca. 4 pm local time with
                                      residents hearing loud booming 
                                      sounds that shook their 
                                      houses; single stone weighing
                                      ca. 2.1 kg went through the 
                                      roof of a house and embedded 
                                      in the soil beside the house.

2020 08 19    Santa Filomena,        H5-6 ordinary chondrite fell in    [83]
               Pernambuco, Brazil     mid-morning as a bright 
                                      fireball that extinguished at 
                                      20.9 km altitude; a 38.2-g
                                      piece was found about 7 km
                                      outside the city; inside the
                                      city, houses were hit by a
                                      2.81-kg piece and a 1.5-kg piece

2021 01 28    Punggur, Lampung,      H7-melt breccia meteorite          [84]
               Indonesia              fell at 9:53 pm local time
                                      with residents in southern 
                                      Sumatra hearing loud booms 
                                      that shook their houses; the 
                                      sonic boom was registered by 
                                      the Indonesia Tsunami Early 
                                      Warning System; a 2.2-kg 
                                      stone crashed through the roof 
                                      of a house; another
                                      138-g fragment crashed through 
                                      a roof and landed on a bed; 
                                      and fragments weighing about 
                                      1.7 and 2.51 kg were 
                                      recovered from rice paddies

2021 10 04    Golden, BC, Canada     L/LL5 ordinary chondrite fell at    [85]
                                      11:33 pm local time via a
                                      bright fireball with flares 
                                      widely observed in SW Canada
                                      and ID/WA states; loud booms
                                      heard near Golden after the
                                      fireball; a fist-sized 1270-g 
                                      meteorite punched through the 
                                      roof of a house in downtown 
                                      Golden, landing on a pillow 
                                      next to her head as she lay
                                      in bed; a week later, a
                                      second, 919-g fragment was
                                      also found 1.32 km to the NNW

2022 05 20    Ponggo, Cagayan        H3-5 ordinary chondrite fell at    [86]
               Valley,                ca. 4 pm local time, with
               Philippines            people hearing three sonic
                                      booms; a 2.4-kg stone struck a
                                      house, crashing through two
                                      layers of roof before smashing 
                                      a plastic plant pot into pieces 
                                      and creating a palm-sized 
                                      dent/crater on the concrete 

2022 07 10    Longde, Ningxia,       L5 ordinary chondrite fell at      [87]
               China                  10:14 p.m. local time, with
                                      numerous people seeing a
                                      bolide and hearing sonic 
                                      booms; numerous gray pieces
                                      weighing ca. 800 g were found
                                      on a dented driveway; a few
                                      km away, a farmer heard a 
                                      ballistic sound that night 
                                      and noticed a huge hole on 
                                      one of his houses the next
                                      morning, finding a single 
                                      45-kg stone 

2023 02 13    Normandy, France      impact of remains of asteroidal      [30]
                                     object designated 2023 CX_1;
                                     third asteroidal object discovered
                                     beyond earth's atmosphere and
                                     known to produce meteorites over
                                     land; meteorite of size about
                                     5 cm x 3 cm found a couple of
                                     days later in a field in the town
                                     of Saint-Pierre-le-Viger (Seine
                                     Maritime), France, by a search
                                     team led by P. Jenniskens, after 
                                     a bright fireball was seen moving 
                                     over the English Channel from 
                                     southern England and northern
                                     France; twelve meteorites totaling 
                                     206 g in weight were found as of 
                                     2023 Feb. 22 (the largest three 
                                     weighing 92.6, 23.8, and 23.6 g) 
                                     -- with half found just northwest 
                                     of the village of Angiens and half 
                                     found just to the southeast of the 
                                     village (meaning that some likely 
                                     fell onto the village itself)

2023 02 14    Matera, Italy         meteorite hit balcony near Matera,   [106]
                                     Italy, in the early evening; 
                                     bright bolide seen by many 
                                     observers in southern Italy 
                                     coming from the northeast, as well 
                                     as by the PRISMA camera network;
                                     12 sizeable fragments totalling
                                     70 g were found

2023 05 08    Hopewell Township,    metal-like meteorite about 6 inches  [107]
               NJ, USA               x 4 inches in size penetrated the 
                                     roof of a house around 1 p.m. 
                                     local time, passing through the 
                                     ceiling and breaking the wood 
                                     floor of a room

[1] Yau et al. (1994), Meteoritics 29, 864

[2] Fessenkov (1955), "Sikhote-Aline Meteorite", in Meteors (ed. by T. R. Kaiser, Pergamon Press, London), p. 179; Gallant (1997), Sky Telesc. 93(2), 50; website with info

[3] Swindel and Jones (1954), Meteoritics 1, 125

[4] di Cicco (1983), Sky Telesc. 65, 118;

[5] Sky Telesc. 83, 372 (April 1992)

[6] website with info; Jenniskens et al. (1994), Meteoritics 29, 246; Sky & Telescope, June 1993, p. 96

[7] Brown et al. (1994), Nature 367, 624; di Cicco (1993), Sky Telesc. 85(2), 26; Z. Ceplecha et al. (1996), *Earth, Moon, Planets* 72, 395-404. See photos as website URL

[8] Brown et al. (1996), Meteoritics & Planetary Sci. 31, 502; Hildebrand et al. (1997), J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 91, 261


[10] Sky Telesc. 86(2), 13 (Aug. 1993)

[11] Sky Telesc. 88(6), 12 (Dec. 1994)

[12] Spratt and Stephens (1992), Mercury, Mar./Apr. 1992, p. 50; Spratt (1991), JRASC 85, 263

[13] Nininger (1952), Out of the Sky: An Introduction to Meteorites, Univ. of Denver Press

[14] Gritzner (1997), WGN 25, 222

[15] Sekanina (1983), A.J. 88, 1382; Melosh (1993), Nature 361, 14; Lyne and Tauber (1995) Nature 375, 638; Sekanina (1998), Planet. Space Sci. 46, 191; Bronshten (2000), Planet. Space Sci. 48, 855; Hou et al. (2000), Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1447; P. L. Brown (1973), Comets, Meteorites and Men (New York, NY: Taplinger Publ. Co.), pp. 192-197; D. Steel (1995), Rogue Asteroids and Doomsday Comets (New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons), pp. 173-176; D. Steel (2000), Target Earth (Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest), pp. 86-87; F. L. Whipple (1962), Trans. IAU X1A, p. 215.

[16] Yamamoto and Murayama (1951), Pop. Astron. 59, 431, 432

[17] LaPaz (1951), Pop. Astron. 59, 433

[18] CCNet reports

[19] Aug. 2004 issue of Meteorite, article by Brenda Archer; Summer 2005 issue of Inside Smithsonian Research (No. 9, p. 16), article by John Barrat; video of the aftermath; also numerous WWW news articles, such as (do a Google search with +"Brenda Archer" +meteorite).

[20] See this webpage and CBET 3423. With standard caution, see the the Wikipedia article on this event; also website URL Information has been compiled at this website.

[21] Elements of Astronomy, Descriptive and Physics, by Hervey Wilbur (1839, New York: Scofield and Voorhies; and Boston: Whipple and Damrell), pp. 106-107.

[22] J. Borovicka and P. Spurny (2008), Astron. Astrophys. 485, L1; G. Tancredi et al. (2009), Meteoritics & Planetary Sci. 44, 1967. With standard caution, see also the Wikipedia article on this event.

[23] P. Jenniskens et al. (2009), Nature 458, 485-488 (26 March).

[24] A. L. Graham and R. S. Clarke, Jr., eds. (1978), "The Meteoritical Bulletin" No. 55, in Meteoritics 13, 341.

[25] L. LaPaz (1958), "The Effects of Meteorites Upon the Earth", Adv. in Geophys. 4, 217ff.

[26] J. S. Lewis (1996), Rain of Iron and Ice (New York, NY: Addison Wesley Publishing Co.), pp. 162-182.

[27] A. V. Nielsen (1968), "Catalogue of Bright Meteors", Meddelelser fra Ole Romer-Observatoriet, No. 39 (Aarhus, Denmark).

[28] "Little Thing Like a Meteor Fails to Discourage Bride", New York Times, 1929 Dec. 8, page E1.

[29] "2018 LA", CBET 4519. Also Jenniskens et al. (2021), *Meteoritics & Planetary Science*. *56* (4), 844.

[30] "2023 CX1", CBET 5221. Also French postings at and

[31] website URL

[32] website URL

[33] website URL

[34] website URL

[35] website URL

[36] the prototypical example of the Nakhlite-type meteorite of the SNC Group of Mars meteorites; it is speculated that this meteorite was formed about 1.3B years ago at a volcano on Mars, somehow ejected into space before landing on the earth; the dog story is not substantiated; website URL

[37] website URL

[38] website URL

[39] website URL

[40] website URL

[41] website URL

[42] website URL

[43] website URL

[44] website URL

[45] website URL

[46] website URL

[47] website URL

[48] website URL

[49] website URL

[50] website URL

[51] website URL

[52] website URL

[53] website URL

[54] website URL

[55] website URL

[56] website URL table&code=58385

[57] website URL

[58] website URL

[59] website URL

[60] website URL

[61] website URL table&code=57165

[62] website URL

[63] website URL table&code=68520

[64] website URL

[65] website URL table&code=62545

[66] website URL

[67] website URL

[68] website URL

[69] website URL

[70] website URL

[71] website URL

[72] website URL

[73] website URL table&code=67794

[74] R. E. McCrosky et al. (1971), NASA publication CR-117036; website URL

[75] website URL

[76] website URL

[77] website URL

[78] website URL

[79] website URL

[80] website URL

[81] CBET 4810; also website URL

[82] website URL

[83] website URL

[84] website URL

[85] website URLs and

[86] website URL

[87] website URL

[88] website URL

[89] website URL

[90] website URL

[91] website URL

[92] website URL

[93] website URL

[94] website URL

[95] website URL

[96] website URL

[97] website URL

[98] website URL

[99] website URL

[100] website URL

[101] website URLs and

[102] G. J. H. McCall and P. M. Jeffery (1970), *Mineralogical Magazine* 37, 880-887; website URL

[103] website URL

[104] F. L. Whipple (1962), Trans. IAU X1A, p. 214.

[105] Unsalan et al. (2020), *Meteoritics and Planet. Sci.* 55(4), 886ff (via website URL; also

[106] website URL

[107] website URL

[list above compiled and updated by D. W. E. Green at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (prior to 2010) and at Harvard University (since 2010)]

See also the Wikipedia list

Cometary Science Center/Archive

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